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Radio Physics and Radio Astronomy Vol. 11, 2006, No.3, September, p.221
Optical and Radio Frequency Diagnostics of the Ionosphere over the Sura Facility: Review of Results
L.M. Kagan, M.J. Nicolls1, M.C. Kelley1, V.L. Frolov2, V.V. Belikovich2, N.V. Bakhmet’eva2, G.P. Komrakov2, D.I. Nedzvetski2, V.P. Uryadov2, Yu.M. Yampolski3, V.G. Galushko3, A.V. Koloskov3, A.V. Zalizovski3, S.B. Kasheev3, N.F. Blagoveshenskaya4, V.A. Kornienko4, T.D. Borisova4, A.V. Gurevich5, G.G. Vertogradov6, V.G. Vertogradov6, T.S. Trondsen7 and E. Donovan7
University of Western Ontario,1151 Richmond Street, Suite 2, London, Ontario, Canada 1Cornell University, 410 Thurston Ave, Ithaca NY 14850-2488, U.S.A. 2Radiophysical Research Institute,Bol’shaja Pecherskaja, 25, Nizhniy Novgorod, 603950, Russia 3Institute of Radio Astronomy, NAS Ukraine, 4, Krasnoznamennaya st., Kharkov, 61002, Ukraine E-mail: yampol@rian.kharkov.ua 4Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Beringa, 38, St. Petersburg, 199226, Russia 5Lebedev’s Institute of Physics,Leninkiy Prospect, 53, GSP-1, Moscow, 119991, Russia 6Rostov-on-Don State University,Prospect Stachki, 200/1, Rostov-on-Don, Russia 7University of Calgary,2500 University Drive NW Calgary, Alberta, Canada T2N 1N4
We give an overview of the design and results of the optical-backscatter-heating campaign which we conducted at the Sura facility near Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia on August 10-20, 2004. This campaign was the first to combine optical observations with simultaneous plasma diagnostics by the method of artificial periodic irregularities and with multi-position backscatter measurements and is an example of the clustering of instruments for the purpose of enhancing research results. Some of the results of the campaign have been published in a special issue of Radiophysics and Quantum Electronics and in Physical Review Letters and will only be summarized here. New results include offset of the optical emissions by 1-2° from magnetic zenith; broadening of the backscatter spectrum for heating at the fourth harmonic of the electron gyro frequency; observation of self-scattered signals at the second harmonic of the heater frequency; first observations of vector plasma drift/electric field measurements using field-aligned irregularities as tracers; verifying the refractive index mechanism for the Doppler shift of self-scattered signals and first observations of synchronized variations in self-scattered and backscattered signals. The electric field observations confirm that the ionosphere over a mid-latitude site such as SURA can be affected by high latitude processes.
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